Answer (1): A copy of the Qurán which I have on my bookshelf makes a list of prophets which is on page 861, Appendix I:
|15||Muhammad||Muhammad or Ahmad|
Answer #2: Here is copied verbatim from page 894, Appendix II, so that we can understand better the view of Islam on Monotheism: (Note: Arabic characters cannot be duplicated so we put parenthesis and say “Arabic letters here”. Quote:
TAUHID – (ISLAMIC MONOTHEISM)
Tauhid (Islamic Monotheism) is to believe in:
- His Angels,
- His Messengers,
- His revealed Books,
- Day of Resurrection,
- and Al-Qadar (Divine Preordainment i.e. whatever Allah ordained must come to pass), and to act on the
Five Principles of Islam, i.e.,
- To testify that La illaha illallah wa anna Muhammad-ur Rasul Allah (None has the right to be worshipped but Allah and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah,
- To offer the (five compulsory congregational) prayers (Iqamat as-Salat),
- To pay zakat,
- To perform Hajj (i.e. Pilgrimage to Makkah),
- To observe fast during the month of Ramadan.
To believe in Allah means declaring Allah to be the only God in the heavens and the earth and all that exists. It has three aspects:
- The Oneness of the Lordship of Allah; Tauhid-ar-Rububiyyah: To believe that there is only one Lord for all the universe, Who is its Creator, Organizer, Planner, Sustainer, and the Giver of security, etc., and that is Allah.
- The Oneness of the Worship of Allah; Tauhid-al-Uluhiyyah: To believe that none has the right to be worshipped (e.i. praying, invoking, asking for help from the unseen, swearing, offering sacrifice, giving charity, fasting, pilgrimage) but Allah.
- The Oneness of the Names and the Qualities of Allah: Tauhid-al-Asma’was-Sifar: To believe that:
- We must not name or qualify Allah except with what He or His Messenger (Arabic letters) has named or qualified Him.
- None can be named or qualified with the Names or Qualifications of Allah; e.g. Al-Karim;
- We must believe in all the qualities of Allah which Allah has stated in His Book (the Qurán) or mentioned through His Messenger (Muhammad a r a b i c letters) without changing their meaning or ignoring them completely or twisting the meanings or likening them (giving resemblance) to any of the created things e.g. Allah is present over His Throne as mentioned in the Qurán (V.20:5):
“The Most Gracious (Allah) rose over (Istawa) the (Mighty) Throne (in a manner that suits His Majesty),” over the seventh heaven; and He comes down over the first (nearest) heaven to us on the day of ‘Arafah (Hajj, i.e. the 9th of Dhul-Hijja) and also during the last third part of the night is mentioned by the Prophet (a r a b i c h e r e) but He is with us by His knowledge, not by His Person-Self (bi-Dhatihi).
It is not as some people think that Allah is present everywhere – – here, there, and even inside the breasts of men.
Also, Allah says:
“There is nothing like Him and He is the All-Hearer, the All-Seer” (V.42:11)
This holy verse proves the quality of hearing and the quality of sight for Allah without likening them (or giving resemblance) to any of the created things) and likewise, He ( Arabic ) also says:
“To one whom I have created with Both My Hands” (V.38.75)
and He also says:
“The Hand of Allah is over their hands.” (V.48.10)
This confirms two Hands for Allah, but there is no similarity for them. This is the belief of all true believers and was the belief of all the Prophets of Allah from Nuh (Noah), Ibrahim (Abraham), Musa (Moses), and Ísa (Jesus) till the last of the Prophets, Muhammad (Arabic here).
These three aspects of Tauhid are included in the meaning of La ilaha illallah (none has the right to be worshipped but Allah).
It is also essential to follow Allah’s Messenger, Muhammad (Arabic characters here) Wujub al-Ittiba and it is a part of Tauhid-al-Uluhiyyah.
This is included in the meaning, “I testify that Muhammad (Arabic letters here) is Allah’s
Messenger,” and this means, “None has the right to be followed after Allah’s Book (the Qurán), but Allah’s Messenger (Arabic letters here).
“And whatsoever the Messenger (Muhammad Arabic letters here) gives you, take it, and whatsoever he forbids you, abstain (from it).” (V.59.7)
“Say (O Muhammad Arabic letters here to mankind), ‘If you (really) love Allah then follow me [i.e. accept Islamic Monotheism, follow the (Qurán and the Sunnah (legal ways of the Prophet Arabic letters here], Allah will love you and forgive you of yours sins.’” (V.3:31).
Note: The above long quotation is Islam’s view of monotheism. In Christian Trinitarianism, there are three Persons in One God. Modalistic Trinitarianism, on the other hand, says there is only one person, but there are three modes of God’s manifestation which are: as Father at one time, as Son in another time, as Holy Spirit in other times.